1804 Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned emperor of France in Paris by Pope Pius VII
1823 President James Monroe outlined his famous doctrine opposing European expansion in the Western Hemisphere.
1859 Abolitionist John Brown was hanged for his raid on Harper's Ferry.
1942 The first controlled nuclear chain reaction was demonstrated at the University of Chicago.
1954 The Senate voted to condemn Republican senator Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin for "conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute."
1970 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established.
1982 Barney B. Clark became the first person to receive an artificial heart in a transplant operation.
1988 Benazir Bhutto was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Pakistan, becoming the first woman to head an Muslim nation.
1990 Composer Aaron Copland died at age 90.
1999 A Protestant and Catholic cabinet convened for the first time in Northern Ireland.
2001 Enron Corp., under CEO Kenneth Lay, filed for bankruptcy.